Diagnosis and Stages of Prostate Cancer

Diagnosis and Stages of Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer is a type of cancer wherein there is an uncontrollable growth of cancerous cells in the prostate gland. This type of cancer only occurs in men because of the prostate gland being absent in women. The prostate gland is located below the bladder and creates the fluid which comes out with semen.

Let us look at the diagnosis and stages of prostate cancer.


1. Ultrasound
An ultrasound is used to look for signs of prostate cancer. A small tube-like instrument is put inside the rectum that creates the image of your prostate gland. This will help your doctor determine the size and location of the cancer.

2. MRI Scan
MRI or magnetic resonance imaging technique may be recommended by your doctor to create a plan for the surgery. It is also important in some cases when the doctor wants to look closely at the cancerous tumor.

3. Tissue collection
This is done in almost all cases of prostate cancer. Tissue collection helps the doctor determine if there are at all any cancer cells in the prostate gland. It also can help them ascertain the severity of the condition.

Tissue collection is done by inserting a needle into the prostate gland, specifically targeting the probable cancer tissues. These cells are then sent to the lab for tests.

Stages of Prostate Cancer

1. Stage I
This is the first stage of prostate cancer, where the cancer cells have not spread. Usually, at this stage, the cancer tissues will only be limited to one side of the prostate gland and cannot be felt.

2. Stage II
This is the next stage of the cancer, where the cancer tissues have spread to the entire prostate gland. It may appear to be small at this stage but poses a high risk of spreading to other regions.

3. Stage III
PSA (prostate-specific antigen) is a test done to identify the levels of prostate-specific antigen in your blood. High PSA levels denote a higher risk of prostate cancer. At this stage, the PSA levels are high. This means that the tumor is growing and has spread to other regions outside the prostate gland.

There are multiple periods in this stage:

  • IIIA
    This is a situation when the cancer has spread to tissues nearby the prostate gland, also affecting the outer layer. It has a possibility of affecting the seminal vesicles.
  • IIIB
    The cancer has touched the bladder or rectum.
  • IIIC
    Cancer has spread to the pelvic walls and is present on both sides of the prostate. PSA levels are Grade Group 5.

4. Stage IV
This is the final stage of prostate cancer. In this stage, the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes, other organs of the body or even to the bones.

If you have any of the symptoms of prostate cancer or have a family history, then we recommend consulting your doctor at the earliest. They will be able to guide you with the diagnosis procedure and stages of prostate cancer in much greater detail.